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We define “enhancement” as an uncommon and unusual improvement in the individual’s capabilities or traits. Neuroenhancement is achieved through the use of drugs or other brain technologies and is expressed in the enhanced individual in an uncommon improvement of mental capacities, cognitive performance, and behavioral functioning, such as memory, learning ability, creativity, alertness, impulse control, and so on.

Selected ethical issues:


  • Influence of neuroenhancement on the enhanced individual’s personal identity and authenticity.
  • Unfair competition (granting a relative advantage to neuroenhanced individuals), social pressure to enhance, discrimination (in employment, academia, and so on) against the non-enhanced.
  • Devaluation of human agency and human life, because of the availability of shortcuts to accomplishment that lack moral implications and weaken the need for effort.
  • The link between enhanced cognitive capabilities and personal and legal liability (hyper-capacity and hyper-agency).
  • Using brain technologies to enhance memory.




[OED1]English a bit awkward