Cloning is a technique of
creating or duplicating genetically identical copies of a biological organism.
There are several methods of cloning:
Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) – A
nucleus containing genetic material is removed from any cell in the body and
injected into an unfertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. The egg is
then artificially stimulated, causing it to divide and act like an embryo. The
cell/organism produced by the cloning process is genetically identical
to the source from which the nucleus was taken.
Splitting – In
Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is used to create a fertilized egg (zygote), which
splits to become an embryo with four identical cells. The cells are separated
and develop into separate but identical blastocysts that can be implanted in
the uterus, mimicking the natural process of the formation of identical
bioethical discourse it is customary to differentiate between therapeutic and
reproductive cloning. The latter raises serious ethical concerns.
Selected ethical issues: